A Multi-Purpose Residual Fuel Additive with a Combustion Catalyst
HFX is a balanced compound of an organic dispersant, detergent,and a surfactant that are blended with a highly effective, combustion improvingcatalyst in a pure hydrocarbon base. Each additive within this compoundis designed to improve particular performance characteristics found in residualfuel.
The flowability of residual oil stocks is improved by the organic dispersantin HFX.
The formation of viscous emulsions and the stratification that often occursin residual fuels is greatly reduced. Dispersing long chain, heavy hydrocarbonsprevents them settling into sludge. Tanks, lines, nozzles and pre-ignitioncomponents remain free of sludge and deposits.
Varnishes, gums and carbon deposits are reduced by the detergentsin HFX.
Both pre-ignition and post-ignition deposits are reduced. Cleaner fuel systemcomponents and burner sur-faces mean improved performance.
The water in residual fuels passes through delivery and ignitionsystems because of the surfactant in HFX.
The surface tension of condensation and free-standing water is reduced (proventhrough scientific tests), allowing it to pass through the system with atomizationof the fuel at the burner nozzles. This inhibits corrosion in the fuel systemand aids the combustion process.
HFX Also Includes a Combustion Catalyst
The reduction of slag, SO3 and the reduction of excess air consumption duringcombustion results in significant savings in fuel consumption and reductionof acid rain.
The combustion catalyst is a solution of organic compounds which are dissolvedin a pure hydrocarbon solvent, making them miscible with oils. These organicions dissolved in solution cause more rapid and complete burning of thefuel and provide significant reductions in the corrosive effects of highsulfur, high vanadium and sodium content of the residual fuel.
Control of deposits during the combustion process is effected by the organiccatalyst. This catalyst changes the nature of the vanadium oxides formedduring the combustion process. The vanadium pentoxide, which has a relativelylow melting point is the primary cause of slag formation in combustion chambers.In liquid or molten form it acts as a binder and a powerful corrosive agent.The organic catalyst in HFX reacts with the vanadium to form high meltingpoint vanadates that deposit in dry friable form thus inhibiting the formationof molten vanadium slag.
Furthermore, existing deposits containing vanadium will usually be reachedby the action of the HFX catalyst's vapors and drop off in pieces over aperiod of a few weeks.
How does the organic catalyst in HFX effect a reduction of SO3 emissions,the primary cause of acid rain? When molten vanadium pentoxide is present,it acts as a catalyst to change the SO2 in the presence of excess air tothe more objectionable sulfur trioxide (SO3), which then combines with moistureto form sulfuric acid. This, of course, has a very serious corrosive effecton metal surfaces and the environment. The dry friable form of vanadatesare deposited far less on combustion chamber surfaces thus reducing substantiallythe conversion of SO2 to SO3.
Additional improvement in the SO2/SO3 ratio can be made by the reductionof excess air. The combustion improving capability of HFX will allow airrequirements to be reduced. Less air and therefore less unused oxygen inthe ignition process causes reduced SO3 formation.
The combination of dispersants, detergents, surfactants and the combustionimproving catalyst in HFX all add up to lower hazardous emissions and improvedfuel consumption.
Lower air requirements and more efficient burning of fuel stocks add upto significant savings. The combustion improvement capability of HFX willallow excess air to be reduced. This helps to overcome loss of heat up thestack by reducing it's velocity past the heating surfaces.
Laboratory tests confirm the value of HFX as an additive to residualfuel stocks.
Combustion tests conducted and verified in a laboratory setting resultedin a significant reduction of unburned residues and increased heat release.
Evaluation of the effects of the combustion catalyst on ash and residues.
To evaluate the effects of the organic combustion catalyst on ash and residues,measured samples of untreated oils were burned in a combustion chamber withair introduced at atmospheric pressure. The unburned residues were thencollected and weighed. The melting point of the residues were determined.The percentage of unburned residue was 10.1% for untreated Bunker C versus6.5% for samples treated with HFX. The ash melting point was 700º-760ºCfor the untreated fuel and 1040º-1200ºC. for the treated fuel.This resulted in an increase of nearly 50% of the melting point of residuesand indicates that the residue will be dryer and will not stick to heatingsurfaces.
Evaluation of the combustion catalyst on heat release.
A typical test to illustrate increased heat release is the Parr Oxygen BombCalorimeter Test. The purpose of this test is to compare the rate of combustionand the amount of heat release for treated and untreated Bunker C oil. Oxygenhas been adjusted to approximate the available oxygen in a typical efficientoil burner. A measured sample of untreated Bunker C was burned and the rateof heat rise recorded. The same oil was treated with a measured dosage ofthe combustion catalyst used in our product and the test was repeated.
During the test when untreated oil was burned, it left sticky, gummy residues.When treated oil was burned, the sticky, gummy residue was not found andthe amount of carbon was greatly reduced.
From the accompanying illustration, one can see the increase in heat releasefor the treated oil during the first period shown may be calculated by integratingto determine the difference in the areas of the two curves. This calculationindicates that approximately 14.6% more heat was obtained from the oil treatedwith our combustion catalyst.
The slope of the temperature-rise curves indicates the rate of combustion.The rate of heat rise in the data below is 0.15o/second for the untreatedfuel, and combustion .025o/second for the treated fuel, an increase of about60% in the rate of combustion.
The overall conclusion from this data illustrates the effectiveness of HFXResidual Fuel Additive for use in all grades of fuel.
The mixing and dosage of HFX with residual oil stocks.
HFX should be added to the storage tank at the time the tank is being filledto insure good mixing. It immediately mixes with the oil, with which itis chemically homogeneous. As it mixes it penetrates and breaks down sludgeand sludge forming compounds into very fine particles. Regular use of HFXwill stabilize waste oil and prevent its deterioration due to microorganismgrowth.
Add HFX to storage tank prior to filling. The additive can be added to thestorage tank during fuel delivery, or it may be fed directly into the oilfeed line by means of a proportioning pump.
Add 1 gallon of HFX to 3000 gallons of residual fuel stock. This equals1 oz. to 23 gallons. Dosage may be increased to obtain optimum results.Double dosage is suggested for initial treatment to break up previous accumulationswith the fuel and combustion systems. HFX can be used in all types of heatingoil with proper ventilation.
Benefits resulting from the use of HFX as a residual fueladditive.
- Prevents buildup of tank bottom sludge.
- Ensures cleaner tanks, lines, strainers, preheating
- Provides more uniform flow of oil to the burner for the best possiblecombustion.
- Inhibits corrosion in fuel systems.
- Converts sludge already present to burnable fuel.
- Recovers tank capacity lost by sludge accumulation with no interruptionof service.
- Improves combustion in burners.
- Reduces air pollution by minimizing the discharge unburned hydrocarbonsand SO3.
- Prevents slag formation.
- Removes old built-up formations.
- Lowers stack temperatures.
- Eliminates tube plugging.
- Prevents corrosion of metal surfaces when using fuels with vanadiumand sulfur content.
- Keeps combustion chambers cleaner for longer periods reducingthe need for cleaning shutdowns and the labor entailed in these operations.
Find out how HFX can help solve your oil problems.
The varied uses of the many grades of oil stocks throughout the world makeit impossible for a single formulation, such as HFX, to be able to solveevery need.
Energy Additives, Inc. and Advanced Technology International Corp. are readywith the technical advice and formulating capability to respond to yourparticular performance problems. Please contact us through the WEB or byphone regarding any questions about HFX or our other additives.
Advanced Technology International Corp.
1820 Wallace Ave. Suite 108,
St. Charles IL 60174, USA.
Tel: (630)513-0009 ; Fax: (630) 513-0080
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